Friday, May 22, 2020

King Lear Act 3 Questions Essay - 2241 Words

King Lear Act III Study Questions Scene I 1. Kent reveals to the Gentlemen that tension between Regan’s husband (Albany) and Goneril’s husband (Cornwall) could quite possible result in a civil war. However, aside from the war, the two may be united in plotting against the murder of King Lear. The King of France is preparing to make a move against these two divided house. He may have already sent spies to their households disguised as servants. 2. The mission that Kent asks the Gentlemen to complete is to go to Dover, the place where Cordelia lives, and inform her of how insultingly he was treated by Goneril and Regan. Also, in order to make sure that Cordelia knows the message sent is from him, he instructs to the Gentlemen to†¦show more content†¦11. Edgar’s speech is filled with alliterations when he is telling King Lear about how he is being chased by the devil. He states some interesting things such as â€Å"the fould fiend follows me† (3.4. 50.) 12. Upon seeing Edgar emerge from the hovel disguised as poor Tom, Lear immediately assumes that he is a madman and the reason he is in this state is because of his daughters. 13. Edgar responds to Lear’s assumptions by stating that he once used to be a rich courtier who used to drink wine all the time and have women with him. 14. Lear tears off his clothes in response to seeing Edgar (disguised as Tom) with an uncovered body. It’s the first time in his life that he actually sympathizes with someone other than himself. As Lear is driven further and further into insanity, he starts to think more about humanity and the way the world perceives him. Lear has actually taken into account some of the things that Edgar says because he realized that the world doesn’t just revolve around him and that material possessions are not everything. This kind of ironic because along with being physically naked, he is also figuratively naked because he has lost all support and must face the cruelties of the world by himself. 15. Gloucester’s appearance at the hovel illustrates the parallelShow MoreRelatedThe Expretation Of The Storm In Robert Frosts The Storm799 Words   |  4 Pagesdevastating storm which accurately describes the situation King Lear is experiencing in Act 2 Scene 4 of the play. As the accuracy of King Lear’s personality is described, it can be seen that King Lear could be considered the speaker of the poem and that reveals his true feelings and emotions after his crisis with his daughters. King Lear’s personality and situation are first described when the first two lines of the starts with a question asking, â€Å"Where had I heard this wind before change like thisRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1480 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction William Shakespeare wrote the play of â€Å"King Lear† in 1986. This is a typical play of human coarseness and vengeance. The play challenges the audience through the contradiction of the goodness and primordial evil of a man. Many characters in this play demonstrate the tendencies of virtuous or vicious throughout the play. There are many themes in the play, but the most prevailing relates to the subject of justice. Shakespeare demonstrates this thematic deception of themes through instancesRead More Sight and Blindness in Shakespeares King Lear - Lack of Vision1477 Words   |  6 PagesSight and Blindness in King Lear      Ã‚  Ã‚   In King Lear, the recurring images of sight and blindness associated with the characters of Lear and Gloucester illustrate the theme of self-knowledge and consciousness that exist in the play.    These classic tropes are inverted in King Lear, producing a situation in which those with healthy eyes are ignorant of what is going on around them, and those without vision appear to see the clearest. While Lears blindness is one which is metaphoricalRead MoreEssay on The Development of the Character of King Lear1132 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"King Lear† is one of the most complicated of all Shakespeares plays. It is about political authority as much as it is about family dynamics. It is a ruthless play, filled with human cruelty and awful, nonsensical disasters. Lear, an autocratic leader, is the king of Britain and has three daughters, Regan, Cordelia and Goneril. Regan and Goneril are cold, heartless and selfish, whereas Cordelia, the youngest is quite the contrary, honest, realistic and straightforward. P Lear is introducedRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1470 Words   |  6 Pagesbehind the ways humans act. Harboring a universal and timeless quality, Shakespeare’s plays have the ability to exceed the restraints of the cultural values during the Elizabethan era, making it relatable to all audiences, especially the modern audience, leaving room for multiple perspectives and understanding of the play. Shakespeare’s play ‘King Lear’, depicts the main protagonist’s ‘gradual descent into madness’ as a result of the forces of evil acting in the play for Lear has, to an extent, haveRead MoreKingship and Leadership in William Shakespeares King Lear Essay1452 Words   |  6 PagesKingship and Leadership in William Shakespeares King Lear Jonathon Dollimore (1984) focuses on Lear’s identity throughout the play. ‘What makes Lear the person he is, is not kingly essence, but among other things, his authority and his family. As the play progresses Lear is forced to question his identity. â€Å"Does anyone hear know me?†¦Who is it that can tell me who I am?†. Dollimore believes King Lear is about power, poverty and inheritance. Shakespeare focusesRead MoreThe Tragic Hero Of King Lear1277 Words   |  6 Pagesor any sign of optimism in the conclusion. This bleak portrayal of King Lear, through his losses, makes him the ultimate tragic hero, and the play an ultimate tragedy. In every tragedy, of course, there is a tragic hero. A person who has good intentions, but leads the story to ruin through a fatal, and uncontrollable, flaw. The plot of the book centers around the consequences of King Lear’s flaw. Throughout the play, King Lear loses his land, his honor, his fathership, his family and his companionsRead More foolear The Wise Fool in Shakespeares King Lear Essay1325 Words   |  6 PagesThe Wise Fool in King Lear      Ã‚  Ã‚   Whether or not the role of the Fool is an important one within King Lear is arguable. Although he seems to have great insight into much of the plays main events, he seems not to have any real influence on both the plot as well as the outcome of the play. He remains the sole character who does not have any direct link with the events of the plot, coupled with an unusually early exit; this raises the question of his significance. However at the very leastRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1550 Words   |  7 PagesINTRODUCTION: By facilitating the growth of evil within William Shakespeare’s King Lear, it is evident that the tragedy’s protagonist, King Lear can be held accountable for his own victimization and ultimate downfall. The most notable aspects of this self-induced victimization include Lear’s own lack of practical wisdom and divergence from the natural order, combined with the neglect of kingship, that enables Lear as a tragic hero to create the conceptual framework in which the ulterior motives ofRead MoreShakespeares King Lear Essay786 Words   |  4 PagesDiscussion Write Up Day one of our discussion brought up the catharsis in King Lear (#4). I agreed that with Gloucester’s death there was not so much catharsis as there was sympathy and happiness. As readers, I think we were happier to see Gloucester put out of his misery â€Å"Pluck out his poor eyes† (3.7.58) and relieved at the fact that he died â€Å"smilingly† (5.3.201). I agreed that we readers were happy about Edgar’s ending since he had so much bad fortune throughout the play he deserved a break,

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

William Shakespeare s King Lear - 2504 Words

Lear s endeavor gets revitalized with every generation that hears the saga, whether from myths, fairy tales, or from King Lear itself. A timeless story, King Lear remains one of Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies for its universal themes involving communication, morality, and family. The fall of characters in King Lear presents audiences with the frailty a community can exhibit from rulers’ pride. Stressing this message, Shakespeare mirrors the main plot surrounding Lear s family with the sub-plot of Gloucester and his sons. Through the use of dialogue exploring motivations for character actions, King Lear amplifies the complexity of emotions in society. By sending Lear on a journey into the hardships of a primitive life to test his mental stability, Shakespeare establishes how madness can lead to clarity. Placing their affection in the wrong hands produces an onslaught of tragic events for those in this play who bare their heartstrings. Shakespeare’s King Lear dra matizes how the use of language, the authenticity of civility, and various manifestations of love affect relationships as well as psychological development. Words within King Lear, whether read or heard, leave a lasting effect on the characters by triggering the disintegration of their relationships. King Lear stresses how language can be used to victimize people behind a veneer of legitimacy. Regan, Goneril, and Edmund in the opening scenes use their eloquence as a tool to fulfill their agendas when the threeShow MoreRelatedWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1564 Words   |  7 PagesWilliam Shakespeare is universally known for his literary output both in poetry and drama. Whether through his laugh-invoking comedies or his heart-wrenching tragedies, Shakespeare’s plays have changed the course of literature. Many of his plays about love are widely praised by all, but Shakespeare s King Lear differs from the rest due to its definition of love. King Lear serves as an battleground between deception and compassion, between flattery and honesty. Rather than focusing on romantic loveRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1550 Words   |à ‚  7 PagesINTRODUCTION: By facilitating the growth of evil within William Shakespeare’s King Lear, it is evident that the tragedy’s protagonist, King Lear can be held accountable for his own victimization and ultimate downfall. The most notable aspects of this self-induced victimization include Lear’s own lack of practical wisdom and divergence from the natural order, combined with the neglect of kingship, that enables Lear as a tragic hero to create the conceptual framework in which the ulterior motives ofRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear3086 Words   |  13 PagesJerion Young Ms. Woods English IV 4 March 2015 King Lear William Shakespeare uses several literary elements in his writing, elements which are especially apparent in his play, King Lear. Shakespeare uses excellent creativity and description when writing this tragedy. â€Å"Neither has Shakespeare placed in the mouth of any other character in this play such fatalistic expressions as may be found in King Lear and occasionally elsewhere†(A.C. 2003). The way King Lear talks in this play is very evil compared toRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1611 Words   |  7 Pagesexperience life-changing events that jeopardize our sense of identity and make us question how we value ourselves. Our perception of our worth can change with what we learn through our existence, much like the characters in the play King Lear by William Shakespeare. Adversity and hardship are inevitable when characters are unable to connect themselves within their own identity or find a loss of self at some point in their role. The self-awareness, an essential a spect of their role, of many ofRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1320 Words   |  6 Pagesothers. Having strong communication skills allows one to better understand the situation at hand. Proper communication is essential to working out problems because of this reason. In the play King Lear by William Shakespeare, Lear communicating with his daughters, Gloucester communicating with his sons, and Lear communicating with Kent are all examples of failure of communication, which later lead to consequences and hardships that the characters must face. Without proper communication, people willRead MoreBlindness By William Shakespeare s King Lear2212 Words   |  9 PagesMaysoun Deeb Mr. A. T. Lebar EN4UN-04 13 July 2015 King Lear Blindness by definition, according to dictionaries, is â€Å"unable to see and lacking the sense of sight† by which King Lear, the classic tragic play written by William Shakespeare, illustrated the concept of blindness amongst his characters as the leading theme. King Lear and Gloucester were the characters that have been conflicted by this â€Å"blindness† that may or may not change their personalities in the very end of the play. Gloucester becomesRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1546 Words   |  7 PagesTwo Sides to Every Person There are two sides to every story; that of the protagonist and that of the antagonist. As shown in the Shakespearean play King Lear, there is very little difference between the two. Edmund, who appears to be a villain, is more than meets the eye. His evil is a rebellion against the social order that denies him legitimacy. His villainy does not come from innate cruelty but from misdirected desire for familial love. His remorse in the end displays his humanity and blindnessRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1510 Words   |  7 PagesShakespeare’s King Lear deals with tragic human relationship like the other tragedies of the author, but this story was written in social aspect and raises the doubtful point on legitimacy of some political systems. In this play, various characters form multi-layered kconflict relations. Thus, the story is being propelled towards tragedy due to numerous inner and outer conflicts of each character. However, as it is brought into being a charact er, Edgar in the end of the story, it implies new beginningRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1470 Words   |  6 Pagesduring the Elizabethan era, making it relatable to all audiences, especially the modern audience, leaving room for multiple perspectives and understanding of the play. Shakespeare’s play ‘King Lear’, depicts the main protagonist’s ‘gradual descent into madness’ as a result of the forces of evil acting in the play for Lear has, to an extent, have sinned though it can’t outweigh that he has been sinned against. This is confirmed through Lear’s injudiciousness to see through his two eldest daughter’s internalRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear 1306 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"All...shall taste the wages of their virtue...the cup of their deservings. (5.3.317-320)† King Lear is frequently regarded as one of Shakespeare’s masterpieces, and its tragic scope touches almost all facets of the human condition: from the familial tensions between parents and children to the immoral desires of power, from the follies of pride to the false projections of glory. However, one theme rings true throughout the play, and that very theme is boundless suffering, accentuated by the gruesome

Career and Goals for Working Women Free Essays

Today women have created significant developmental role in all departments of life, Almost women excel her capacitates more than men like in the field of sports and creative artistic competitions like in offices, industries she has made her name in every field of social and economic status Women prove herself in every professional role being as teachers and nurse in the medical field. Still there is no profession exist in which women are not competing with the men. Women take part in every emerging profession which are considered the gender sensitive for the women like politics, police, hostess, clerk’s etc. We will write a custom essay sample on Career and Goals for Working Women or any similar topic only for you Order Now Women are striving for developing trade and industries, administration, research and other developmental activities. In the developed world, women’s are side by side with the men to improve the socio economic conditions of her family. States has given equal professional growth opportunities to women as women are the near about one half of the population of the universe. Women are considered the most fundamental fact create sustainable development for the future generations. If God would not create the women it will lead ultimately no universe existence on earth. Women have set of role like in shape of mother, sister, wife and other relation associated with the man to accomplish the definition of family. Islam has also define the dignity and respect of the women, Islam also emphasis women rights which are merely equal with the men. Islam is a complete code of life and given rights to humans before 1400 years ago, when humanity is in ignorance and have system of rights to the women, women’s were treated as slaves, and the men had all the rights to use women as a product. In the modern World, people are making propaganda about the rights of women, different social organizations are spending millions of budget to harmonizing and sensitizing society regarding promotion of women rights. Work Life Balance of Women employee has become an important subject since the women are equally sharing the earning responsibility for the betterment of their family. Women are getting into jobs and they continue to work even after marriage. A married woman has more responsibility than man in taking care of young children and family. The working women efficiently overcome difficult situations by their commitment and perseverance. Career and goals are the most important factors in life. Most of the women are coming forward to work in order to support their family. This change is now natural and dynamic due to change of environment and economic conditions. â€Å"Marriage is one of the most intense human relationships. The quality of this relationship is continually redefined by spouses and is potentially crucial to their overall experience of family life† (Pimentel, 2000). The universality of marriage does not mean that everybody in every society gets married. It means only that most people in every society get married at least once in their life time. Marriage and family, the two social institutions with biological foundation, are complementary to each other. Both have a long standing history of their own. Marriage is one of the universal social institutions. It is established by the human society to control and regulate the sex life of human being. Marriage merely means a socially approved sexual and economic union between a woman and a man. On the other hand, marriage is the legal union of male and female. When one reaches marriageable age, he or she subconsciously or consciously enters to the spousal supply and demand system in which comparison, selection and marriage occur. It is closely connected with the institution of family. Rao has extracted from Gillin and Gillin as â€Å"Marriage is a socially approved way of establishing a family of procreation†; As Westermarck has remarked, â€Å"Marriage is rooted in the family rather than the family in the marriage† (Rao, 2002). When we say that marriage is universal, we do not mean that marriage and family customs are the same in all societies. On the contrary, there is much variation from society to society in how one marries, whom one marries, and how many persons one marries. The universal culture about marriage is that no society permits people to marry parents, brothers, or sisters. The family often includes more individuals than parents and their immature offspring; it may include two or more related married couples and their children. Marriage is an institution of society which can have very different cultures. Its purposes, functions and forms may differ from society to society, but it is present everywhere as an institution (Rao, 2002). 1.1. Multiple roles and professional women(Super DE,1980) identified six common life roles. He indicated that the need to balance these different roles simultaneously is a reality for most individuals at various stages throughout their lives. Rather than following a transitional sequence from one role to another, women are required to perform an accumulation of disparate roles simultaneously, each one with its unique pressures. Campbell et al. studied the effects of family life on women’s job performance and work attitudes. The result revealed that women with children were significantly lower in occupational commitment relative to women without children; contrary to expectation, women with younger children outperformed women with older children. Makowska, studied psychosocial determinants of stress and well-being among working women. The significance of the work-related stressors was evidently greater than that of the stressors associated with the family function, although the relationship between family functioning, stress and well-being was also significant. Most medical students and physicians aspire to have three lifetime roles: doctor, spouse, and parent. The goals and activities of each of these roles will inevitably compete with one another and lead to role conflict, something female physicians have traditionally experienced as they have struggled to balance domestic responsibilities with a demanding medical career. Young male physicians may also be experiencing higher levels of role conflict than they have in past decades, as societal role expectations change. Men are juggling their traditional burden as â€Å"breadwinner† with recent demands to help with family responsibilities (Los Angeles Times. June 16, 1996:A1). Work-Family Conflict Perspectives Initially, work-family literature focused on the negative psychological effects of juggling work and family roles. The phrase â€Å"work-family conflict† (WFC) emerged in the 1980s, with the sharp increase in women’s participation in the workforce. The change in employee demographics challenged the gendered ideology of men as the primary breadwinner and women as the stay at home mother. The traditional gendered sex-role connotes the conflict that arises when women attempt to fulfill the responsibilities of both roles. According to role theory, work-family conflict occurs because of an inter-role conflict in which the role demands of one sphere (work or family) are incompatible with the role demands of another sphere (work or family). The assumption that work and family are separate spheres and in competition for resources such as time and attention continues to be dominant in our society (Barnett, 1998). Related to inter-role conflict is the â€Å"scarcity hypothesis,† which states that human energy and resources are fixed and limited. Thus, individuals partake in a zero-sum game in which resources expended in one sphere deplete those available for the other, leading to diminished role quality in the sphere that received less resource (Gutek, Searle, ; 5 Klepa, 1991). Data from nearly 20 years ago indicate that 38% of male physicians and 58% of female physicians’ reported career-family conflicts. Those conflicts have broad ramifications. Family obligations have delayed careers for up to two thirds of female physicians and a quarter of male physicians. Physicians’ mental health, job satisfaction, and job performance may have suffered .Family relationships may also be strained as work-related issues spill over into home life. Most distressingly, high work demands for either parent can have negative values on parenting attitudes, the home Environment, and ultimately on children’s cognitive and emotional development. Despite the overwhelming potential for role conflict among married physicians, there is a lack of recent information regarding its prevalence and resulting career changes among physicians in this country. As such information would be useful to medical students and young physicians choosing professional paths, to physicians contemplating career changes, and to health services administrators concerned with workforce productivity, we conducted a cross sectional study of married Southern California physicians with children with two purposes in mind: to evaluate gender and generational differences regarding role conflict among married physicians with children; and to evaluate gender and generational differences in career changes made for marriage and family among married physicians with children. Marriage and established family life are the unique qualities of human being, which makes them to be an integral element of social life. It’s a union in which two individuals from different background and personality traits interact and cohabit together for cause of establishing a family. As it’s an interaction and mutual understanding between two unique personalities, there are chances of having conflict and adjustment problems. Marriage is the primary source of individual happiness and meaning in life. These fulfillment, happiness and positive development will be possible only when the relationship between couples is coherent and satisfactory. Due to the influx of women into the paid workforce in the last half century, the balance of family dynamics has shifted significantly. For the couple particularly, the impact of both spouses working increases the number of stressors in their marital relationship. Family can be widely thought of as a social union which requires certain activities (i.e., tasks) to be performed. Especially when both spouses are employed, the process of allocation of individuals to these activities may require spouses to negotiate (Scanzoni, 1982), which can be an important source of conflict within marriage. In that case, employment and earnings can be important resources which give relative bargaining power to each spouse in these negotiations (Lundberg ;Pollak, 1993). STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM In today’s world there is a streamlined universal culture in which women’s are allowed for doing to meet their family needs. This is a visible change that women possess autonomous employments opportunities and eliminating their stigma which is traditionally associated with the women role and gender attributes. Women has develop their significant role to prove herself as change agent in the society. This diverse progress improve the socio economic conditions of women in society and increase the level of dignity. Women are facing problems like engaging multitasking roles and responsibilities which are creating the role conflict for the women. Women are responsible for performing multi roles like handling workplace organization related matters, she is managing her children at home and performing other tasks at the same time. In the whole situation, Working women are dealing with the higher level of anxiety and stress while managing the multi household tasks which are creating serious disruption the family matters. Family is a basic element of any developed society, it has fundamental role in arranging all parts of the family under one unit. In case of any disruption, family functions lose whole balance and disturb the whole structure. This role may be in form of any relation it may be a mother or a wife. Davison of labor is not defined in our society, so that why women are considered the most neglected and unattended part of the society, these differences causes problems in the social positing of women in the family. Significance of the study The reason for choosing this topic is to pinpoint the issue of work-life con?ict faced by women, which is a signi?cant dilemma which needs to be addressed, in order to develop strategies that will provide support for women who are balancing work-life and family-life. In fact, there exists a gap that can be analyzed and explored further by studying the relationship between work-life con?ict and the dual responsibilities of women. Moreover, an argument can be given for further reducing this con?ict because dual earning families are increasing in both industrial and non-industrial countries, where women at work are confronting the same quandary around work-home issues. It is therefore necessary to seriously tackle this issue to prevent it from becoming a dilemma in the future. It is possible to accept that as more and more women have entered the workforce, there is no longer a solid family-support at home (Schwarts, 1992). â€Å"Women have increased their participation in paid employment considerably during the past 30 years, but men have not increased their participation in housework to the same extent† (Evertsson and Nermo, 2004). Women working in some industries, factories, banks, hospitals etc. complain that they do not get time to look after and give care to their babies. The efficiency of a working woman is always suspected and questioned by most people, especially their male counterparts. In the upper class crews, it is generally seen that all qualifications remaining similar, men are usually preferred. Authorities are doubtful whether women would be able to handle male subordinates, take independent decisions, cope with crisis and manage their duties properly (Andal,2002). Even though women prove they are efficient, authorities think twice before promoting them and even if women are given the chance, there is always a remark that they were given the position because they were women. The present study therefore aims at finding out the impact and signi?cance regarding the women job and mutual understanding with family in the field of medical at the Hospital of Chaudhary Pervez Elawhi Institute Of Cardiology Multan the city of Pakistan. The possible reason for choosing this topic is to pinpoint the issue of work and mutual understanding of the family that face by married female doctors, which is a signi?cant problem which needs to be address, in order to develop strategies that is provide support for female doctors who are balancing work-life and family-life . 1.3. Objectives of the Study To investigate the effects of working female doctors on their children. To examine the influence of wives job on her partner. To explore the socio economic factors effect on working women. To find out possible solutions to overcome expected roles regarding family Conflict 1.4. HYPOTHESIS Less mother’s involvement in children leads to mental and physical disorder in the children. Working women may face the health issues. 1.5. Implication of the Study The study would help us in understanding the present status of women in our society what Kind of problems they are going through. To find out possible solutions for problems and issues faced by working women Doctors. To find out the problems that faced by married female Doctors and also that problems create gap in mutual understanding with family. The study can yield results that can help us in better understanding the problems and challenges faced by working women. Some solutions can be offered for betterment of working women that face work family conflict issues. 1.6. Limitations of the Study All methodical inquiries are subjected to few limitations, although these may differ with respect to the magnitude of limitations. The findings of the present study are subject to the following limitations: The study area was confined to one Hospital (CPEIC). Thus the results of the study are applicable only to similar kind of situation analysis. The study pertain to a certain time period. The result may not be valid for over a longer period of time due to fast changing socio-economic and socio-cultural setting in this study area. Because of limitation of time and other resources involved in research, the present study was restricted to a limited number of samples. The result drawn from this study, therefore may have limited application i.e., it cannot be assumed to provide information, capable of generalization over other regions and could have regional biasness, but surely the broad similarities specific to a particular gender, will provide some insight to the study. How to cite Career and Goals for Working Women, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa Essay Example

The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa Paper The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa, German king and Holy Roman Emperor had a huge impact on medieval Germany during the 12th century. The question of ecclesiastical versus secular power broke out during the emperors reign at a time when Germany was considered to be the strongest monarchy, having authority in Italy and the rest of the Roman Empire. The time was right at Frederick Barbarossas accession in 1152 to restore imperial authority in Italy which had been in demise since the Investiture contest. However this goal threw the Holy Roman emperor into a conflict with the papacy, an obstacle that would prove too hard to overcome in order to achieve all that which the emperor thought was denied to him. However the Papacy also paid a price for holding Frederick in opposition. The Italian policies were far too extent and were finished incomplete. The emperors Italian policies at which he aimed to retrieve from the papacy what he thought he was entitled to, were controversial but innovative. Frederick aimed, with the help of Chancellor Rainald of Dassel to reconstruct the Holy Roman Empire to return it to the glory days of Rome and exercise the authority that the Ottonian emperors had done. 1This battle for land was in essence a way to increase his revenues so he could keep what power he had in Germany over his most influential vassals, something his imperial court pursued vigorously. The authority over the Papal States in such a feudal system meant in theory he was ruler of Rome, but ever since the Commune directed against the papacy had been established in 1143 in Rome the debate had been vociferous and complicated. We will write a custom essay sample on The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This would not only create a united and strong empire, it would also question the role of regalia in the papacy. This great design2 was declared openly to the church in 1158 with the Roncaglia decrees. The papacy was angry at this break from the Peace of Constance of 1153, (at which they had been allies) and his determination to exercise authority, especially in central and Northern Italy, proclaimed in the Roncaglia decrees. 3 The Roncaglia decrees proclaimed he would resume all regalia, entire power of Bannus; full exercise of jurisdiction over all matters affecting property, life and liberty. This antagonism, the papacy felt went against the authority of God since the church should have authority over everything, and it resulted in a break of the papal alliance and a schism amongst the church. The papacy highly opposed the independence of many Lombard cities and would not allow any increase in imperial power in Italy. 4 The emperor began his Italian policy swiftly, completing four campaigns into Italy in 1164 and supporting many imperial popes during the 1160s. Even earlier he had established imperial rule in Milan, during the time of Hadrian IV, with little opposition from the papacy5 but Milan found allies in the communes of Brescia and Piacenza. Milan was taken in 1162 and later destroyed which narrowed the anti-imperial coalitions prospect for success, while he forced Alexander III into exile and enthroned Paschal III, a German in St. Peters in 1167. 6 The opposition of the Papacy to the Italian policy began with the succession of Alexander III, the emperors most formidable opponent. The papacy had already found allies in the Lombard city of Milan after the Roncaglia Decrees. Imperial rule over Milan was quickly answered two years after Frederick had taken Milan 8when Manual I, the Byzantine emperor organised an opposition in Venice, the League of Verona with its allies Verona, Padua and Vicenza, including the Norman King. This proved to perhaps achieve the greatest success in opposing the Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa in Nor thern and Central Italy. The papacy went further in opposition under the politics of Alexander III by excommunicating the emperor after he established Paschal III as pope. The papacy then continued in its opposition in 1167 when the Imperial army was defeated outside Rome, by extending the League of Verona by allying itself into the Lombard League in 1167, while at the same time the pope contributed large sums of money. This proved to wreck many of Fredericks ambitions and gain support for the papacy. Alexander III gained the support of France and the Anglo-Norman Kingdom, while in Denmark and Poland the remaining allies of the imperial pope were exiled. 10 A year later Alexander was able to establish the city of Alessandria with the help of the League. The city of Alessandria was to the emperor a symbol of papal achievement, and although efforts for settlement with the pope continued, the presence of the Lombard League was something the emperor could not allow during peace. The Italian policy again prevaile d with the fifth campaign in 1174 against Alessandria. The emperor again faced defeat and was able to make peace in Montebello with the League, but the Italian policy once again got in the way when Frederick could not accept the inclusion of Alexander III in the peace. Fredericks stubbornness in following his Italian policies (even in opposition to the papacy) however was weakened and a small success was granted to Alexander. The battle of Legnano in 1176 resulted in a near complete destruction of the imperial supremacy in Italy and convinced the emperor to reconcile with the pope. 1 Negotiations at Anagni achieved a far reaching settlement 12 between emperor and pope. The emperor was forced to renounce the Matildine lands and ally with Alexander. He granted some independence to the cities he controlled in Italy and accepted the role of overlord. At this stage the Italian policies of Frederick had failed and the papacy was triumphant. The new relations with the pope had not destroyed the Italian policy, but had instead ended this period of conflict in the Peace of Venice in 1177. Compromise was the aim of both Pope and emperor at the Peace of Venice. Frederick gave up his idea of domination of Italy in return he remained in control of the German church, evidence that the papacy was not as successful in exercising the idea of a papal monarchy and that much strain had been put on its authority over this period. 13 Peace with the Lombard league and Norman King however was not entirely a defeat of the Italian policy, it had taken away much of the authority of Fredericks in Northern Italy but it had left him the authority of the German church, although this was not in Italy it meant the papacy was back where it started. Fredericks policy became focused on the Matildine lands and central Italy. The Peace was broken when Frederick continued his Italian policy in the 1180s; it was the price of silence over many issues (at the treaty of Venice) which were to give rise to the troubles. 14 Frederick revenged the battle of Legnano in 1180 which was later followed by the peace of Constance in 1183. 15 The Peace of Constance meant Frederick was forced to allow the members of the League to have extensive constitutional independence within the city walls and the city territory. But Fredericks rights which could make large financial profits within the city remained. However with the death of Alexander in 1181 there followed a line of passive popes who complied with the emperor during his last Italian campaign (118-6) thus strengthening his influence in Lombardy. By 1189 compromise was again on the table and the papacy was granted a number of places in the Patrimony of St. Peter, reestablishing the area around Rome as a Papal domain. The papacy was left surrounded at the death of Frederick Barbarossa in 1190 when his son Henry VI became engaged to the heiress of the Norman Kingdom of Southern Italy. Frederick still held administrative power in some parts of central Italy but his Italian policy had failed. The Italian policy had failed because it did not answer the question of ecclesiastical versus imperial authority. Frederick Barbarosssas plans of supreme domination over the entire Holy Roman empire were not achieved, but though he yielded much of what he wished to gain it is not to say either that the papacy was entirely successful. ) It had radically altered the place of the papacy in the church16 and left the Holy Roman emperors successors with many claims unanswered. The hard line of Alexander III had not been continued and the emperor was left for sometime unopposed. The Lombard communes can be recognised as the real reason the papacy emerged successful 17 but still the papacy had the future to deal with, a future that found them surrounded by the Holy Roman Emperors authority. Both the emperor and the Papacy paid the price of conflict, but the Papacy was successful enough to immobilise the Italian Policy of Frederick Barbarossa.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

The Practice of Loving Kindness or Metta Defined

The Practice of Loving Kindness or Metta Defined Loving kindness is defined in English dictionaries as a feeling of benevolent affection. But in Buddhism, loving kindness (in Pali, Metta; in Sanskrit, Maitri) is thought of as a mental state or attitude, cultivated and maintained by practice. This cultivation of loving kindness is an essential part of Buddhism. The Theravadin scholar Acharya Buddharakkhita said of Metta, The Pali word metta is a multi-significant term meaning loving-kindness, friendliness, goodwill, benevolence, fellowship, amity, concord, inoffensiveness and non-violence. The Pali commentators define metta as the strong wish for the welfare and happiness of others (parahita-parasukha-kamana). ... True metta is devoid of self-interest. It evokes within a warm-hearted feeling of fellowship, sympathy and love, which grows boundless with practice and overcomes all social, religious, racial, political and economic barriers. Metta is indeed a universal, unselfish and all-embracing love. Metta often is paired with Karuna, compassion. They are not exactly the same, although the difference is subtle. The classic explanation is that Metta is a wish for all beings to be happy, and Karuna is a wish for all beings to be free from suffering. Wish is probably not the right word, though, because wishing seems passive. It might be more accurate to say directing ones attention or concern to the happiness or suffering of others. Developing loving kindness is essential to doing away with the self-clinging that binds us to suffering (dukkha). Metta is the antidote to selfishness, anger, and fear. Dont Be Nice One of the biggest misunderstandings people have about Buddhists is that Buddhists are always supposed to be nice. But, usually, niceness is only a social convention. Being nice often is about self-preservation and maintaining a sense of belonging in a group. We are nice because we want people to like us, or at least not get angry with us. Theres nothing wrong with being nice, most of the time, but its not the same thing as loving kindness. Remember, Metta is concerned with the genuine happiness of others. Sometimes when people are behaving badly, the last thing they need for their own happiness is someone politely enabling their destructive behavior. Sometimes people need to be told things they dont want to hear; sometimes they need to be shown that what they are doing is not okay. Cultivating Metta His Holiness the Dalai Lama is supposed to have said, This is my simple religion. There is no need for temples; no need for complicated philosophy. Our own brain, our own heart is our temple. The philosophy is kindness. Thats great, but remember that were talking about a guy who gets up at 3:30 a.m. to make time for meditation and prayers before breakfast. Simple isnt necessarily easy. Sometimes people new to Buddhism will hear about loving kindness, and think, No sweat. I can do that. And they wrap themselves in the persona of a lovingly kind person and go about being very, very nice. This lasts until the first encounter with a rude driver or surly store clerk. As long as your practice is about you being a nice person, you are just play-acting. This may seem paradoxical, but unselfishness begins by gaining insight into yourself and understanding the source of your ill will, irritations, and insensitivity. This takes us to the basics of Buddhist practice, beginning with the Four Noble Truths and the practice of the Eightfold Path. Metta Meditation The Buddhas best-known teaching on Metta is in the Metta Sutta, a sermon in the Sutta Pitaka. Scholars say the sutta (or sutra) presents three ways to practice Metta. The first is applying Metta to day-to-day conduct. The second is Metta meditation. The third is a commitment to embody Metta with full body and mind. The third practice grows from the first two. The several schools of Buddhism have developed several approaches to Metta meditation, often involving visualization or recitation. A common practice is to begin by offering Metta to oneself. Then (over a period of time) Metta is offered to someone in trouble. Then to a loved one, and so on, progressing to someone you dont know well, to someone you dislike, and eventually to all beings. Why begin with yourself? Buddhist teacher Sharon Salzberg said, To reteach a thing its loveliness is the nature of Metta. Through loving kindness, everyone and everything can flower again from within. Because so many of us struggle with doubts and self-loathing, we must not leave ourselves out. Flower from within, for yourself and for everyone.

Monday, March 2, 2020

College Essay Myth Never Write a College Essay About Sports

College Essay Myth Never Write a College Essay About Sports You’ve probably heard the myth that you should never, ever write a college essay about one topic or another. Sports is one of the big no-nos. Who wants to hear about another come-from-behind winning game, right? But the fact is, as I related in my last blog, there are no good or bad essay topics, only good or bad essays. Luckily for you, I have obtained permission from my nephew to share his very good essay about – you guessed it – sports. Please read and enjoy – and notice why this college essay about sports stands above the rest. I’ll give you a hint: He has a sense of humor about himself. He relates his internal story a lot more than the external facts of the game. He comes full circle from the first paragraph to the last, with growth in between. And he writes about something he loves. (And in case you were wondering, he got into Northwestern University, UT Austin, and every other school to which he applied.) College Essay About Sports As a 4’9† high school sophomore, the first couple of weeks on the bench of the JV team brought me to the conclusion that my competitive baseball-playing days were over. In my initial despair, I longed for just one more chance. Ever since little league, baseball had been a part of me. Letting go of it mid-high school simply wouldn’t do. Then I remembered the time when I had filled in as an umpire at the little league where I grew up. The thought of watching baseball games for money, with my only job being to concentrate on each play and make a decision, was appealing. Umpiring wasn’t playing, but it was something, so I gave it another try. It was a few weeks into my new endeavor. The score was 15-0, top of the fourth, and it was already 9:20 p.m. Although there was no feasible way for the home team to win due to the five-runs-per-inning rule, all games were required to go four complete innings. Ugh. I want to go home. Hmmm, What if the pitcher were to throw a pitch that were even somewhat close to being a strike? It wouldn’t affect the outcome of the game, so could I maybe make an exception? No, that would be wrong. I can’t do that. In fact, since I am even thinking about this, my brain is probably going to expand the strike zone subconsciously, and therefore I should make a conscious effort to tighten it. Oh God, what am I even DOING? Umpiring was a bit more complicated than I expected. And, frustrating as it could be at times, I loved it. As an umpire, I constantly find myself lost in internal debates over my biases that I never experienced as a player. There are times when I realize, with some anxiety, that my decision agreed with what I had personally hoped would happen, or with a previous argument a coach had made, or with the latest grumblings of the fans. Although I generally consider myself fair, I have sudden crises, wondering whether I have committed the ultimate sin in umpiring: letting other people’s â€Å"calls† replace my own. I can usually convince myself that these instances are coincidental, but it’s still challenging to take in so much information from all sides about how the game is being perceived, and still be true to what I saw happen. As a player, one of my favorite parts of baseball had always been the mental game. I filled the â€Å"down time† that many others found boring with discussions and arguments with my teammates about strategy or rules. I have carried that aspect over into umpiring, mostly through discussions with coaches. Sometimes the most frustrating part of umpiring is when coaches accept my call without argument even though they don’t agree, saying â€Å"That’s ok, you’re the umpire.† Many umps would welcome this submission, but I find it even more offensive than being screamed at. Sometimes I talk to coaches between innings to further explain why I called what I did. These gestures are often appreciated, if not for my opinion, then for my attitude. The conversations are also far more mentally stimulating than the constant dispute the shortstop and I used to have over who should cover second base on a steal. I don’t wear a glove or swing a bat anymore, but I still consider myself a baseball player. I view the almost 100 games I’ve umpired as merely a position change. Although I have only made â€Å"great plays† by shouting my interpretation of what happened, and the pressure of the game is to perform mentally rather than physically, I now have the one more chance I desired. Even as I tower (albeit only by a few inches) over the players in size, and wear a different uniform, I feel more a part of each game than I ever have. So if you want to write a college essay about sports, go for it! And if you need help with how to say it, The Essay Expert is here to coach you. Check out our College Admissions Services page for more about what we offer and what others have to say about our services.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Project Environment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Project Environment - Essay Example Project management is usually designed to fit into the scope of the project in question. Some projects are bigger than others and actually may comprise of a series of projects. In this case such projects are commonly referred to as programmes. For instance a project including some construction of an airport, roads leading to the airport, community facilities such as schools as well as a series of other related projects comprises of a really big project and there is a programme. Wembley stadium project is one of the biggest projects in the UK in the recent history (Nicholas, 2004). The Wembley National Stadium Project stretched over a period of 6 years and cost in excess of over ten billion pounds. Lessons learnt from management of the Wembley project as well as other projects serve as great case studies for organisational management especially in regard to how to address the challenges which happen in the process of organisational in change management, conflict resolution, stakeholder management as well as aligning an organisational strategy to the organisational mission. One of the major reasons why projects are conceived is the fact that there are needs in the community, in the organisation or in the society, which needs to be addressed. Project management identifies a pressing need or pressing needs, which it sets out to address by offering the necessary correctional measures. Once the needs have been identified by using the right needs assessment tools, the next step is to prioritise the needs identified in order of priority. Once the deserving cases have been isolated, the project is conceived probably by the change initiators who may include the government, community leaders, the management of the organisation or individuals who have an interest in the project. One of the greatest considerations before initiating a change in form of a project is to analyse the resources required in the project completion. The greatest threat which faces any project prior to initiation or even during the implementation process is the fact that no matter the status of affairs in an organisation or in a given setting there are some people who benefit from the given status. It is such people who pose the greatest threat to the change initiators for project conception in that they offer stiff resistance to the change initiation. Such opponents to change are usually people who benefit from the current state of affairs and see the change as a threat to the status quo, which they benefit from. Therefore there is a need for project managers to identify such people who fail to welcome the change and mange them properly. In some cases those who offer the greatest resistance in case of projects are key stakeholders in the project and therefore their continued resistance to the project may lead to the failure of the project. For example a project like the Wembley National Stadium came under opposition from the local community. Until the standoff between the project management and the local community was resolved it was impossible to move on with the project. In some projects the government may be reluctant to offer the necessary support especially in terms of is suing the right kind of licences. This